AMERICANREVOLUTION.ORG THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BRITISH ARMY IN THEAMERICAN REVOLUTION Illustrative Appendices to CHAPTER IV
THE PROVISIONING OF THE ARMY
ACCOUNT OF PROVISIONS RECEIVED BY DANIEL CHAMIER, COMMISSARY GENERAL IN NORTH AMERICA, BETWEEN 6 FEB. 1775 AND 9 JAN. 17781
Kind of Provision Amount Value Bread 2,032,538 lbs. £17,240 5s 6 1/2d Beer 106 tuns 24 gallons £267 6s 7d Spirits 61,282 gals. £6,894 8s 3 1/4d Wine 14,851 gals. £1,206 13s 6d Beef 159,287 lbs. £9,789 10s 3 1/4 Pork 231,910 lbs. £9,421 7s 3 1/4d Flour 271,443 lbs. £1,888 8s 1d Suet 3,238 lbs. £53 19s 6d Raisins 23,010 lbs. £349 5s 2d Pease 9,572 bush. £1,905 14s 4 1/2d Oatmeal 122,059 gals. £4,130 5s 1d Rice 75,077 £727 11s 10d Oil 12,641 gals. £2,554 11s 2d Butter 17,933 lbs. £485 14s Cheese 7,909 lbs. £111 4s 5d Vinegar 10,739 gals. £288 12s 9d Butt Staves
£15 9s 4 1/2d Casks
£5,504 12s 1 1/4d Bags 12,491 £676 11s 11d Jars 397 £198 10s Coals 687 chal. £1,134 15s 9d Sugar 9,004 lbs. £176 17s 3 1/4d Barley 22,332 lbs. £139 11s 6d Salt 32 Bush. £6 2s 1 1/2d Fish 8,352 lbs. £33 8s 1 3/4d Total £65,200 16s Account of Provisions etc., Decayed
Kind of Provision Amount Value Beef 1,128 lbs. £17 15s 10 1/2d Pork 140 lbs. £1 18s 5 1/4d Raisins 769 lbs. £5 8s 2d Oil 104 gals. £15 12s Butter 176 lbs. £1 18s 3 1/4d Bags 157 Jars 1 10s ACCOUNT OF PROVISIONS RECEIVED BY COMMISSARY GENERAL DANIEL WEIR AT NEW YORK BETWEEN 7 OCT. 1774 AND 5 SEPT. 17812
Kind of Provision Amount Value Bread 512,182 lbs. £4,020 9s 6d Spirits 42,655 gals. £5,687 7s Beef 42,832 lbs. £2,699 6s 2d Pork 83,269 lbs. £3,469 11s 1 3/4d Flour 164,884 lbs. £1,099 10s 8d Raisins 2,574 lbs. £45 19s 3d Pease 1,148 bush. £242 9s 2d Oatmeal 12,007 gals. £422 14s 1d Rice 91,557 lbs. £897 5s 1 1/2d Oil 2,385 gals. £531 15s 4 1/4d Butter 14,516 lbs. £463 14s 6 1/2d Cheese 251 lbs. £3 10s 7 1/2d Vinegar 4,618 gals. £125 2d Casks
£1,778 2s 1d Bags 3,994 £216 6s 10d Jars 84 £42 Candles 120 doz. £40 5s Sauerkraut 123 barr. £215 5s 9d Total £22,000 12s 5 1/2d ABSTRACT OF PROVISIONS SHIPPED FOR NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA IN 1776,1777,1778, INCLUDING THE REMAINDER OF THE PROVISIONS CONTRACTED FOR IN 1778 BUT NOT YET SAILED FROM CORK.
(LONDON, 15 JANUARY, 1779)3
N.B. The Quantity lost or taken on the Voyage to America does not amount to above 12 or 14 days Consumption.
Bread & Flour
Oatmeal & Rice
105 Ships dispatched in 1776 1,825,731 7,067,572 9,847,744 76,732 1,722,583 782,249 11 Ships sailed from Cork 6 May 1777 304,290 1,210,088 1,336,440 7,175 1/2 299,195 128,909 8 Ships sailed from Cork 19 May 1777 229,950 1,084,096 1,755,376 5,650 535,561 89,340 10 Ships sailed from Cork 20 June 1777 305,970 898,256 1,506,400 2,816 631,561 131,402 6 Ships sailed from Cork 14 July 1777 132,300 578,592 1,683,024 1,544 369,824 34,797 8 Ships sailed from Cork 30 Oct 1777 136,240 727,168 1,249,360 11,154 1/4 217,864 65,000 7 Ships sailed from Cork 16 Aug 1777 86,310 554,960 1,362,984 15,071 1/2 36,882 8 Ships sailed from Cork 12 Sept 1777 200,130 678,520 1,395,240 18,115 48,750 104,724 3 Ships sailed from Cork 18 Dec 1777 152,565 388,336 289,240 256 196,672 12,473 2 Ships sailed from Cork 18 Dec 1777 281,424 721,760 8 Ships sailed from Cork 25 Feb 1778 194,055 813,986 1,962,612 11,130 1/2 34,020 122,403 7 Ships sailed from Cork 10 Apr 1778 129,675 193,648 1,634,968 3,579 44,226 40,108 6 Ships sailed from Cork 31 May 1778 136,448 545,992 1,217,600 7,060 54,405 6 Ships sailed from Cork 28 Jun 1778 277,830 937,490 1,076,320 9,916 1/4 109,172 13 Ships sailed from Cork 31 July 1778 518,280 916,680 2,900,560 22,691 1/2 188,912 147,240 5 Ships sailed from Cork 12 Oct 1778 153,300 607,360 1,517,320 5,708 1/4 107,296 42,725 8 Ships sailed from Cork 11 Nov 1778 284,970 997,148 2,167,760 760 1/4 118,948 8 Ships sailed from Cork15 Dec 1778 341,670 592,274 1,580,320 7,097 1/4 176,064 114,856 Ships at Corke as per Estimate, but the exact Return not recorded 985,432 1,958,012 24,962 1/4 287,826 18,329 Total 5,691,138 20,499,358 40,372,338 231,419 3/4 4,860,354 2,154,052 Which would supply 40,000 Men for 1,039 Days 1,039 Days 1,009 Days 1,282 Days 1,282 Days 1,005 Days
None of the Supplies to Canada, Nova Scotia, or the Floridas are included hereof.
A fleet of 10 victuallers is now lying at Cork if they have not already sailed.
Orders are given for dispatching 4 Months compleat provisions for 32, 000 Men from Cork to New York in Feb. 1779.
EXAMPLE OF A PROVISION CONTRACT4
Articles of Agreement Indented and made and concluded this 2d April 1776 in the Sixteenth Year of the Reign of Our Sovereign Lord George the third by the Grace of God King of Great Britain France and Ireland Defender of the Faith and so forth, By and Between the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury on the Part and behalf of his Majesty of the one part and Arnold Nesbit, Adam Drummond and Moses Franks Esqrs. on the other part.
Whereas it is thought Necessary that a Contract should be entered into with some fit and responsible persons for furnishing a Quantity of Provisions for the supply of the Troops on Service in America such Provisions to be delivered into Store Houses at Corke at such Times as the said Lord Commissioners shall Appoint.
And Whereas Proposals have been made to the said Lords Commissioners by the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks for performing the said Service Which proposals the said Lords Commissioners have on the part and behalf of his Majesty thought fit to Accept upon the terms Limitations and restrictions herein After mentioned.
Now this Indenture Witnesseth that the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks Do for themselves, their Heirs Executors and Administrators promise Covenant, Contract and Agree with the said Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury that they the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks shall and will deliver or cause to be delivered at their own Costs Charges and Risques into Storehouses to be provided at His Majesty's Expence such Respective Quantities as the said Lords Commissioners shall direct and Require of good wholesome and sound Provisions of a Quality and condition fit for the purpose of exporting to America for the use of his Majesty's Troops there serving under Genl Howe of the kinds herein After mentioned as will be sufficient to Victual 12000 Men from the 1st Day of January 1776 to the 1st day of May 1777 in the following Proportions that is to say for each Person to be Victualled for several days and so for every seven days, Successively, Seven pounds of Bread or in lieu thereof Four pounds of Pork Six Ounces of Butter three Pints of Pease One pound of Flour or in lieu thereof Half a Pound of Rice or half a Pound of Oatmeal and the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks further Covenant and Agree that they will during the Continuance of ye Present Contract furnish upon due Notice given to them such Quantities of the said several Articles of Provisions as shall from time to time be Required and Demanded of them by the said Lords Commissioners and deliver the same into his Majesty's Storehouses at Corke at their own Expence And in Case any of the said Provisions shall be found bad in their kind or unfit for the purpose before mentioned by the Person or Persons to be Appointed for inspecting or examining the same such provisions shall not be suffered to be put into the Storehouses but the like Quantity of ye like Articles of Provisions good wholesome and Sound shall be furnished in lieu thereof at the Expence of the said Contractors And the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks do likewise agree that all the Provisions to be delivered into his Majesty's Storehouses at Corke shall be packed in the best Manner and most suitable for the intended Service, And the Lords Commissioners on the behalf of His Majesty Do covenant promise and Agree that the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks their Heirs Executors and Administrators shall be Allowed and Receive for the Provisions so delivered into his Majesty's StoreHouses at Corke at and after the Rate of 5 1/4d p. Ration upon Producing Certificate signed by the Commanding Officer and Commissary of Stores at Corke or some Person or persons as shall be Appointed for that purpose which Certificates are to specify the Quantities of Provisions which shall have been delivered and that the same were in good Order and Condition And the said Lords Commissioners do likewise Covenant and Agree that they will bear harmless and indemnify the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond, Moses Franks from all Losses and Damages that may happen to the said Provisions after being delivered into the Store Houses at Corke and also in regard to the payment of any Custom House Duties for or upon any of the said Provisions to be delivered pursuant to this Contract and it is hereby declared and Agreed by and between the said Parties to these Presents that the same and the several Articles and things Contained therein shall Continue and be in force for and during the space of Sixteen Calendar Months that is to say for and from the first day of January 1776 to the first day of May 1777 exclusive.
Lastly it is Covenanted and Agreed between the Parties to these Presents that the said Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury or any of them shall not be liable in any of their Persons or Estates to any Action of Covenant or other Action whatsoever by Reason or Means of their being on his Majesty's behalf made parties to this Contract In Witness whereof the said Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury and the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks have hereunto interchangeably put their Hands and seals the Day and Year first Above Written
North C Townshend Beauchamp Cornwall
*** HOWE'S REMARKS ON HORSE PROVISIONS NECESSARY FOR THE CAMPAIGN OF 17765 Forage
It will be Necessary to begin the Campaign with Six Months Forage in the Magazines which cannot be procured in this Country in its present Situation therefore it must be looked for from Europe.
Rhode Island from the best information can supply fifteen Thousand Tons of Hay in Season, but still great difficulties will arise in procuring it if the Inhabitants of that Island are inimical, as you must depend upon them to cut and cure the Hay. The same Observation will answer with respect to Long Island, and Statten Island, in the Province of New York. Therefore upon this uncertainty the dependence upon Magazines must be upon Europe.
The army being in the field may furnish itself with green forage from the Middle of June to the Middle of September.
Oats and Bran
Canada is able to Supply the Articles of Oats and Bran, but the length and uncertainty of the Voyage is such, that it is thought these articles may be brought from England or Ireland, full as Cheap, and with this advantage that Oats in particular are far superior in Quality. . . .
Head Quarters Boston Nov. 27th 1775.
*** THE DUTIES OF A COMMISSARY GENERAL6
Instructions to be observed by our Trusty and Welbeloved Nathl Day Esqr. in the execution of his Commission, under our Sign Manual bearing date 20th day of March 1776 whereby he is appointed Commissary of Our Army in Canada.
You shall forthwith repair to the District described in your Commission as afores'd & take upon you the inspection, supervision, & direction of all Commissaries, & Deputy Commissaries, & Ass't Commissaries, of every description, & all their subordinate Officers, Ministers, & Agents whatsoever now or hereafter belonging to, or attending upon our Army that now is or shall be in Canada, subject nevertheless in all things to such Orders as you shall from time to time receive from us, or from our high Treasurer, or the Commissioners of our Treasury, for the Time being or from the Commander in Chief of our said Army.
You are from time to time to appoint any one, or more of Deputy Commissaries, or Assistants whom you shall think fit to preside over, take care of, superintend, aid, & assist in the securing and management of Magazines and Depots of Provisions and Forage for the use of the said Army, and also the conduct and Establishment of the Bakery, as the exigency of the Service may require.
You are to take charge of all Provisions which shall arrive in Canada for the use of our Army there and superintend the distribution thereof to the Troops. And you are to follow all such Rules and Orders touching the Providing and distribution of Fresh Provisions as you shall receive from the Commander in Chief of our said Army for the time being.
You are to make up monthly Accounts of all Provisions and Supplies which shall be received for the use of Our Army, and of the expenditures thereof, and what shall remain in Store, with an Account of the Number of the Rations drawn and of the Officers, Private Men and all others victualled, distinguishing their Rank and situation, and you are from time to time and by every opportunity to make exact and true returns thereof to Our High Treasurer or Commissioners of the Treasury for the time being and you are also from time to time to impart to Our High Treasurer or Commissioners of the Treasury for the time being all material transactions arising within the Charge of the Commissariat, attending our said Army, Given etc.
*** COMMISSION OF COMMISSARY GENERAL DANIEL WIER7
George the Third by the Grace of God King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. To our Trusty and Welbeloved Daniel Wier Esqr. Greeting: We do by these Presents constitute and appoint you to be Commissary General of Stores, Provisions and Forage to Our Forces serving within Our Colonies in North America, lying upon the Atlantick Ocean from Nova Scotia on the North to West Florida on the South, both inclusive, now under the Command of Our Trusty and Welbeloved Sir William Howe, Knight of the Bath, Major General of Our Forces, and General of Our Forces in North America only; You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the Duty of Commissary Genl. of Stores, Provisions and Forage for Our said Forces, by doing and performing all and all manner of things thereunto belonging; And We do hereby authorize and impower you to inspect the buying & delivering of Stores, Provisions and Forage for the use of Our said Forces, whether the same be done by Contractors or others, and likewise to settle and adjust all accounts relating thereunto; And you are to observe and follow such Orders & directions from time to time as you shall receive from Us, the Commander in Chief of our said Forces, or any other superior Officer, according to the Rules & Discipline of War. Given at Our Court at St. James' the First day of February 1777, in the Seventeenth Year of Our Reign.
By H. M. 0.
Daniel Wier Esqr Commissary General of Stores, Provisions and Forage to the Forces in No. America now under the Command of General Sir William Howe.
3T. 64:107, Robinson to Clinton, 19 Jan. 1779 (enclosure).
4T. 64:1061 pp. 64-67.
5C.O. 5:92, p. 721. Apparently drawn up for the perusal of Lord Dartmouth.
7W.O. 25:33, p. 120.
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